Guidelines for the Authors concerning methods of writing established in the European Review of Law and International Relations – selected issues

  1. Reference to the source material.
  2. Give first name (names) or in subsequent references initials and last name of the author or editor, full title (at least at first reference), a place and year of publication.
  3. First name (names), their initials and last name of the author should be written using the Antiqua typeface.
  4. The title should be written using either the Antiqua typeface in case of non-serial publications (books and other individual publications) or the cursive font (italic type) in case of series of publications (including magazines) and extracts, e.g. chapter or editorial unit of the non-serial publication. See pt 16.
  5. If a certain source is referenced more than once, full information should be given only in the first reference and subsequently only its shortened version i.e. without the place of publication of legal act or court sentence and with initial of author’s name (names) before the last name and a shortened title (usually to its first word) with ellipsis and the number of the referenced page (pages). If the same source is referenced in the subsequent footnotes, the first time it should be given in full and subsequently just the beginning of the title with ellipsis. There should never be reference to the footnote where the source material for mentioned. In case the reference concerns the same page (pages) of certain source material words ‘therein’ or ‘ibidem’ can be used but with the strong recommendation to use consequently one or the other (English or Latin version).
  6. Source material in foreign languages is citied in original language. If Polish translation exists this fact can be mentioned advisably in square brackets. In case the referenced source material is written in alphabet other than the Latin, the original alphabet can be used or transliterated or transcribed into Latin alphabet.
  7. Series of publications (e.g. magazine) is referenced by writing in the quotation marks the full title, the year of publishing and the number of issue or volume (most commonly in a form of double numbering). In situations when the abbreviated form of the title is commonly accepted and used, the quotation marks are not necessary.
  8. If the source material includes other markings e.g. paragraph number or numbered thesis, those markings can be used in the reference.
  9. In bibliographical descriptions there is no obligation to include the names of the publishing houses (even shorten versions); the name of the city (cities) and the year of publishing is sufficient. If some of this basic information was omitted in the referenced source material, this fact should be pointed out.
  10. If the source material contains mistakes (in the title or anywhere else) the author can point it out by putting an exclamation mark usually in square brackets [!] after the mistake.
  11. In case of legal acts their full official title is necessary (at least in the first reference; subsequently shortened version is acceptable, especially if commonly used one exists).
  12. Legal acts should be quoted in their original version and original place of publication (in applicable situations with the annotation ‘with changes’). If certain legal act has consolidated text, this version should be quoted.
  13. The year of publication of Polish Official Journal (Dziennik Ustaw) has to be specified every time it’s different form the year in which the legal act was enacted.
  14. The original number of the EU Official Journal has to be specified as a source of referenced EU legal acts.
  15. Foreign legal acts should be referenced in the same way as in the country of origin.
  16. Official judiciary publishing journal should be specified as a source of referenced judicial decision if such a decision was published in the said journal. It is acceptable to refer to official electronic database of judicial decisions (e.g. BOSN, POSP, LEX legal information platform) if such decision is available there.
  17. Decisions of the European court should have their signature, the name of the case, and ECLI signature. The names of the opposing sides in the case should be divided with the word ‘versus’ (or shortened ‘v.’).
    Suitable internet database of judicial decision should be specified as a source of such referenced materials, e.g. CURIA (CJEU, General Court, EU Civil Service Tribunal) or HUDOC (ECHR).
  18. If there is a reference to a chapter (or other editorial unit) of multi-authored publication, the author of this part of publication should be named as well as the title of the publication (after word [in:] in square brackets, not preceded with comma). See pt 3 when it comes to typefaces.
  19. If a multi-authored publication has one or more scientific editors, his name or their names should be included without naming the authors. If there is no such editor (editors), all authors should be named; if there is more than four authors, only the first one should be named (with addition ‘et al’) or the title of the publication.
  20. If certain source material is available in both, paper and digital version, the author should decide which one he refers to.
  21. Source materials available in the digital databases should be referred to with specified name of the database and the record number.
  22. Referenced source material from the internet should specify the internet address and the date of access.
  23. If the source material isn’t publicly accessible this fact should be specified.
  24. Reference to the source material not yet published but accepted to print should say ‘in print’.
  25. In bibliography the initial of author’s first name should be placed before his last name.
  26. In bibliography the source materials are listed in alphabetic order (considering authors’ last names, editors’ last names or titles – see pt 17). Publication of the same author are listed in chronological order. In case of multi-authored publications the name of the author specified as first is relevant.
  27. In case of the citation styles in the footnotes and bibliography both Oxford citation style and Harvard citation style are acceptable. Author should choose one and be consequent throughout the whole publication.
  28. Quotes should be marked with quotation marks or cursive font. Using both methods simultaneously is not advisable. In quotes marked with quotation marks the author should remember to use secondary level quotation marks (to choose from: the French system, the German system or single quotation marks) if necessary (e.g. definitional quotes); alternatively other methods of distinguishing quotations can be considered. It is also important to remember about the possible multilevel of brackets (a bracket within a bracket occurring most often in footnotes).
  29. Detailed guidelines applicable to the publications of the European Review of Law and International Relations, especially those not included in above mention recommendations, can be found on the Interinstitutional Style Guide web site (available in 24 languages) under following address:
  30. During the editorial verification of the linguistic correctness of received texts the basic (paper) point of reference on standards is the ‘Great Polish dictionary PWN’ (2004) edited by Andrzej Markowski (and other subsidiary orthoepic dictionaries). Primary source of verifying correct spelling is the newest edition of the ‘Great orthographic dictionary PWN’ edited by Edward Polański (2016). In both matters editorial process includes the linguistic recommendations of standards (specified in i.a. orthographic resolutions) created by the Council for Polish Language – available online
    In detailed matters the main reference point is the guidebook by Adam Wolański ‘Text edition’ (PWN 2008).

    II. Preferred abbreviations (of Polish words and their meaning translated into English)

ang. English; art. Article; b.d.w. without the date of publishing; b.m. without the place of publishing; ca circa; cz. part; d. former, formerly; DzU or Dz. U. Dziennik Ustaw (Polish Official Journal) (without space and with space), Dz. Urz. Dziennik Urzędowy (Official Journal); ibid. Ibidem; in pr. in principio; lit. letter; k.c. a civil code; k.k. a criminal code; k.p. a labour code; k.r.o. a family and guardianship code; k.s.h.  a code of commercial companies; Mon. Pol. Monitor Polski; n. next, subsequent; nn. next, subsequent; nb. notabene, incidentially; nb side number; nr number (always with a small letter regardless of the source); nt thesis number; op. cit. opere citato, opus citatum (with space; Polish version dz. cyt.);  p. versus; Pal. Palestra (The Bar); PiP Państwo i Prawo (State and Law); PS Przegląd Sądowy (Judicial Review); par. paragraph (preferably: §); pkt point (without the dot); por. compare with; poz. position; r. year; red. edited by; ros. russian; rozdz. chapter; rozp. ordinance; RPEiS Ruch Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny i Socjologiczny (Poznań Journal of Law, Economics and Sociology); s. page, ss. pages (in case of subsequent pages preferable writing: ss. 1 and 2, not ss. 1-2; this rule changes with at least three subsequent pages);  t. thesis (not: tom, which is better to be written down without abbreviations); tt. thesis; t.j. consolidated text; uchw. SN (7) a Supreme Court resolution adopted by a panel of 7 judges); ust. section; v. versus; Zb. Orz. Zbiór Orzeczeń (Collection of Judicial Rulings); Zesz. Nauk. Zeszyty Naukowe (Scientific Notebooks); zd. sentence; zm. changes; zob. see.